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Fake Provider



The fake provider module contains fake providers, fake backends and other simulated backend implementations. The fake backends are built to mimic the behaviors of IBM Quantum systems using system snapshots. The system snapshots contain important information about the quantum system such as coupling map, basis gates, qubit properties (T1, T2, error rate, etc.) which are useful for testing the transpiler and performing noisy simulation of the system.

Example Usage

Here is an example of using a fake backend for transpilation and simulation.

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.providers.fake_provider import FakeManilaV2
from qiskit import transpile
from import plot_histogram
# Get a fake backend from the fake provider
backend = FakeManilaV2()
# Create a simple circuit
circuit = QuantumCircuit(3)
# Transpile the ideal circuit to a circuit that can be directly executed by the backend
transpiled_circuit = transpile(circuit, backend)
# Run the transpiled circuit using the simulated fake backend
job =
counts = job.result().get_counts()
../_images/providers_fake_provider-1_00.png ../_images/providers_fake_provider-1_01.png ../_images/providers_fake_provider-1_02.png

Please note that the simulation is done using a noise model generated from system snapshots obtained in the past (sometimes a few years ago) and the results are not representative of the latest behaviours of the real quantum system which the fake backend is mimicking. If you want to run noisy simulations to compare with the real quantum system, please follow steps below to generate a simulator mimics a real quantum system with the latest calibration results.

from qiskit.providers.ibmq import IBMQ
from qiskit_aer import AerSimulator
# get a real backend from a real provider
provider = IBMQ.load_account()
backend = provider.get_backend('ibmq_manila')
# generate a simulator that mimics the real quantum system with the latest calibration results
backend_sim = AerSimulator.from_backend(backend)

Fake Providers

Fake providers provide access to a list of fake backends.

FakeProviderForBackendV2()Fake provider containing fake V2 backends.
FakeProvider()Fake provider containing fake V1 backends.

Fake Backends

Fake V2 Backends

Fake V2 backends are fake backends with IBM Quantum systems snapshots implemented with BackendV2 interface. They are all subclasses of FakeBackendV2.

FakeAlmadenV2()A fake Almaden V2 backend.
FakeArmonkV2()A fake 1 qubit backend.
FakeAthensV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeAuckland()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeBelemV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeBoeblingenV2()A fake Boeblingen V2 backend.
FakeBogotaV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeBrooklynV2()A fake Brooklyn V2 backend.
FakeBurlingtonV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeCairoV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeCambridgeV2()A fake Cambridge backend.
FakeCasablancaV2()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeEssexV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeGeneva()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeGuadalupeV2()A fake 16 qubit backend.
FakeHanoiV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeJakartaV2()A fake 7 qubit V2 backend.
FakeJohannesburgV2()A fake Johannesburg V2 backend.
FakeKolkataV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeLagosV2()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeLimaV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeLondonV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeManhattanV2()A fake Manhattan backend.
FakeManilaV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeMelbourneV2()A fake 14 qubit backend.
FakeMontrealV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeMumbaiV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeNairobiV2()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeOslo()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeOurenseV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeParisV2()A fake Paris backend.
FakePerth()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakePrague()A fake 33 qubit backend.
FakePoughkeepsieV2()A fake Poughkeepsie backend.
FakeQuitoV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeRochesterV2()A fake Rochester backend.
FakeRomeV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeSantiagoV2()A fake Santiago backend.
FakeSherbrooke()A fake 127 qubit backend.
FakeSingaporeV2()A fake Singapore backend.
FakeSydneyV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeTorontoV2()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeValenciaV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeVigoV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeWashingtonV2()A fake 127 qubit backend.
FakeYorktownV2()A fake 5 qubit backend.

Fake V1 Backends

Fake V1 backends are fake backends with IBM Quantum systems snapshots implemented with BackendV1 interface.

FakeAlmaden()A fake Almaden backend.
FakeArmonk()A fake 1 qubit backend.
FakeAthens()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeBelem()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeBoeblingen()A fake Boeblingen backend.
FakeBogota()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeBrooklyn()A fake Brooklyn backend.
FakeBurlington()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeCairo()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeCambridge()A fake Cambridge backend.
FakeCasablanca()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeEssex()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeGuadalupe()A fake 16 qubit backend.
FakeHanoi()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeJakarta()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeJohannesburg()A fake Johannesburg backend.
FakeKolkata()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeLagos()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeLima()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeLondon()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeManhattan()A fake Manhattan backend.
FakeManila()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeMelbourne()A fake 14 qubit backend.
FakeMontreal()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeMumbai()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeNairobi()A fake 7 qubit backend.
FakeOurense()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeParis()A fake Paris backend.
FakePoughkeepsie()A fake Poughkeepsie backend.
FakeQuito()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeRochester()A fake Rochester backend.
FakeRome()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeRueschlikon()A fake 16 qubit backend.
FakeSantiago()A fake Santiago backend.
FakeSingapore()A fake Singapore backend.
FakeSydney()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeTenerife()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeTokyo()A fake 20 qubit backend.
FakeToronto()A fake 27 qubit backend.
FakeValencia()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeVigo()A fake 5 qubit backend.
FakeWashington()A fake 127 qubit backend.
FakeYorktown()A fake 5 qubit backend.

Special Fake Backends

Special fake backends are fake backends that were created for special testing purposes.

FakeQasmSimulator()A fake simulator backend.
FakeOpenPulse2Q()A fake 2 qubit backend for pulse test.
FakeOpenPulse3Q()Trivial extension of the FakeOpenPulse2Q.
Fake1Q()A fake 1Q backend.
FakeBackendV2()A mock backend that doesn't implement run() to test compatibility with Terra internals.
FakeBackend5QV2([bidirectional])A mock backend that doesn't implement run() to test compatibility with Terra internals.
FakeMumbaiFractionalCX()A fake mumbai backend.
ConfigurableFakeBackend(name, n_qubits[, ...])Configurable backend.
GenericBackendV2(num_qubits[, basis_gates, ...])Generic BackendV2 implementation with a configurable constructor.

Fake Backend Base Classes

The fake backends based on IBM hardware are based on a set of base classes:


class qiskit.providers.fake_provider.fake_backend.FakeBackendV2

GitHub(opens in a new tab)

A fake backend class for testing and noisy simulation using real backend snapshots.

The class inherits BackendV2 class. This version differs from earlier FakeBackend (V1) class in a few aspects. Firstly, configuration attribute no longer exists. Instead, attributes exposing equivalent required immutable properties of the backend device are added. For example fake_backend.configuration().n_qubits is accessible from fake_backend.num_qubits now. Secondly, this version removes extra abstractions FakeQasmBackend and FakePulseBackend that were present in V1.

FakeBackendV2 initializer.

Deprecated since version 0.46.0

The class qiskit.providers.fake_provider.fake_backend.FakeBackendV2 is deprecated as of qiskit 0.46.0. It will be removed in qiskit 1.0. All fake backend instances based on real device snapshots (FakeVigo,`FakeSherbrooke`,…) have been migrated to the qiskit_ibm_runtime package. To migrate your code, run pip install qiskit-ibm-runtime and use from qiskit_ibm_runtime.fake_provider import FakeExample instead of from qiskit.providers.fake_provider import FakeExample.


class qiskit.providers.fake_provider.FakeBackend(configuration, time_alive=10)

GitHub(opens in a new tab)

This is a dummy backend just for testing purposes.

FakeBackend initializer.



class qiskit.providers.fake_provider.FakeQasmBackend

GitHub(opens in a new tab)

A fake OpenQASM backend.

FakeBackend initializer.



class qiskit.providers.fake_provider.FakePulseBackend

GitHub(opens in a new tab)

A fake pulse backend.

FakeBackend initializer.


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