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QiskitRuntimeService

QiskitRuntimeService(channel=None, token=None, url=None, filename=None, name=None, instance=None, proxies=None, verify=None, channel_strategy=None)GitHub(opens in a new tab)

Class for interacting with the Qiskit Runtime service.

Qiskit Runtime is a new architecture offered by IBM Quantum that streamlines computations requiring many iterations. These experiments will execute significantly faster within its improved hybrid quantum/classical process.

A sample workflow of using the runtime service:

from qiskit_ibm_runtime import QiskitRuntimeService, Session, Sampler, Estimator, Options
from qiskit.circuit.library import RealAmplitudes
from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, QuantumRegister, ClassicalRegister
from qiskit.quantum_info import SparsePauliOp
 
# Initialize account.
service = QiskitRuntimeService()
 
# Set options, which can be overwritten at job level.
options = Options(optimization_level=1)
 
# Prepare inputs.
psi = RealAmplitudes(num_qubits=2, reps=2)
H1 = SparsePauliOp.from_list([("II", 1), ("IZ", 2), ("XI", 3)])
theta = [0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5]
 
# Bell Circuit
qr = QuantumRegister(2, name="qr")
cr = ClassicalRegister(2, name="cr")
qc = QuantumCircuit(qr, cr, name="bell")
qc.h(qr[0])
qc.cx(qr[0], qr[1])
qc.measure(qr, cr)
 
with Session(service=service, backend="ibmq_qasm_simulator") as session:
    # Submit a request to the Sampler primitive within the session.
    sampler = Sampler(session=session, options=options)
    job = sampler.run(circuits=qc)
    print(f"Sampler results: {job.result()}")
 
    # Submit a request to the Estimator primitive within the session.
    estimator = Estimator(session=session, options=options)
    job = estimator.run(
        circuits=[psi], observables=[H1], parameter_values=[theta]
    )
    print(f"Estimator results: {job.result()}")

The example above uses the dedicated Sampler and Estimator classes. You can also use the run() method directly to invoke a Qiskit Runtime program.

If the program has any interim results, you can use the callback parameter of the run() method to stream the interim results. Alternatively, you can use the RuntimeJob.stream_results() method to stream the results at a later time, but before the job finishes.

The run() method returns a RuntimeJob object. You can use its methods to perform tasks like checking job status, getting job result, and canceling job.

QiskitRuntimeService constructor

An account is selected in the following order:

  • Account with the input name, if specified.
  • Default account for the channel type, if channel is specified but token is not.
  • Account defined by the input channel and token, if specified.
  • Account defined by the default_channel if defined in filename
  • Account defined by the environment variables, if defined.
  • Default account for the ibm_cloud account, if one is available.
  • Default account for the ibm_quantum account, if one is available.

instance, proxies, and verify can be used to overwrite corresponding values in the loaded account.

Parameters

  • channel (Optional[Literal[‘ibm_cloud’, ‘ibm_quantum’]]) – Channel type. ibm_cloud or ibm_quantum.
  • token (Optional[str]) – IBM Cloud API key or IBM Quantum API token.
  • url (Optional[str]) – The API URL. Defaults to https://cloud.ibm.com(opens in a new tab) (ibm_cloud) or https://auth.quantum-computing.ibm.com/api(opens in a new tab) (ibm_quantum).
  • filename (Optional[str]) – Full path of the file where the account is created. Default: _DEFAULT_ACCOUNT_CONFIG_JSON_FILE
  • name (Optional[str]) – Name of the account to load.
  • instance (Optional[str]) – The service instance to use. For ibm_cloud runtime, this is the Cloud Resource Name (CRN) or the service name. For ibm_quantum runtime, this is the hub/group/project in that format.
  • proxies (Optional[dict]) – Proxy configuration. Supported optional keys are urls (a dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy, documented at https://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/api/#requests.Session.proxies(opens in a new tab)), username_ntlm, password_ntlm (username and password to enable NTLM user authentication)
  • verify (Optional[bool]) – Whether to verify the server’s TLS certificate.
  • channel_strategy (Optional[str]) – Error mitigation strategy.

Returns

An instance of QiskitRuntimeService.

Raises

IBMInputValueError – If an input is invalid.


Attributes

channel

Return the channel type used.

Return type

str

Returns

The channel type used.

global_service

= None

runtime

Return self for compatibility with IBMQ provider.

Returns

self

version

= 1


Methods

active_account

active_account()

Return the IBM Quantum account currently in use for the session.

Return type

Optional[Dict[str, str]]

Returns

A dictionary with information about the account currently in the session.

backend

backend(name=None, instance=None)

Return a single backend matching the specified filtering.

Parameters

  • name (Optional[str]) – Name of the backend.
  • instance (Optional[str]) – This is only supported for ibm_quantum runtime and is in the hub/group/project format. If an instance is not given, among the providers with access to the backend, a premium provider will be prioritized. For users without access to a premium provider, the default open provider will be used.

Returns

A backend matching the filtering.

Return type

Backend

Raises

QiskitBackendNotFoundError – if no backend could be found.

backends

backends(name=None, min_num_qubits=None, instance=None, dynamic_circuits=None, filters=None, **kwargs)

Return all backends accessible via this account, subject to optional filtering.

Parameters

  • name (Optional[str]) – Backend name to filter by.

  • min_num_qubits (Optional[int]) – Minimum number of qubits the backend has to have.

  • instance (Optional[str]) – This is only supported for ibm_quantum runtime and is in the hub/group/project format.

  • dynamic_circuits (Optional[bool]) – Filter by whether the backend supports dynamic circuits.

  • filters (Optional[Callable[[List[IBMBackend]], bool]]) –

    More complex filters, such as lambda functions. For example:

    QiskitRuntimeService.backends(
        filters=lambda b: b.max_shots > 50000)
    QiskitRuntimeService.backends(
        filters=lambda x: ("rz" in x.basis_gates )
  • **kwargs

    Simple filters that require a specific value for an attribute in backend configuration or status. Examples:

    # Get the operational real backends
    QiskitRuntimeService.backends(simulator=False, operational=True)
     
    # Get the backends with at least 127 qubits
    QiskitRuntimeService.backends(min_num_qubits=127)
     
    # Get the backends that support OpenPulse
    QiskitRuntimeService.backends(open_pulse=True)

    For the full list of backend attributes, see the IBMBackend class documentation <https://docs.quantum.ibm.com/api/qiskit/providers_models(opens in a new tab)>

Return type

List[IBMBackend]

Returns

The list of available backends that match the filter.

Raises

  • IBMInputValueError – If an input is invalid.
  • QiskitBackendNotFoundError – If the backend is not in any instance.

delete_account

static delete_account(filename=None, name=None, channel=None)

Delete a saved account from disk.

Parameters

  • filename (Optional[str]) – Name of file from which to delete the account.
  • name (Optional[str]) – Name of the saved account to delete.
  • channel (Optional[Literal[‘ibm_cloud’, ‘ibm_quantum’]]) – Channel type of the default account to delete. Ignored if account name is provided.

Return type

bool

Returns

True if the account was deleted. False if no account was found.

delete_job

delete_job(job_id)

Delete a runtime job.

Note that this operation cannot be reversed.

Parameters

job_id (str) – ID of the job to delete.

Raises

  • RuntimeJobNotFound – If the job doesn’t exist.
  • IBMRuntimeError – If the request failed.

Return type

None

get_backend

get_backend(name=None, **kwargs)

Return a single backend matching the specified filtering.

Parameters

  • name (str) – name of the backend.
  • **kwargs – dict used for filtering.

Returns

a backend matching the filtering.

Return type

Backend

Raises

QiskitBackendNotFoundError – if no backend could be found or more than one backend matches the filtering criteria.

instances

instances()

Return the IBM Quantum instances list currently in use for the session.

Return type

List[str]

Returns

A list with instances currently in the session.

job

job(job_id)

Retrieve a runtime job.

Parameters

job_id (str) – Job ID.

Return type

RuntimeJob

Returns

Runtime job retrieved.

Raises

  • RuntimeJobNotFound – If the job doesn’t exist.
  • IBMRuntimeError – If the request failed.

jobs

jobs(limit=10, skip=0, backend_name=None, pending=None, program_id=None, instance=None, job_tags=None, session_id=None, created_after=None, created_before=None, descending=True)

Retrieve all runtime jobs, subject to optional filtering.

Parameters

  • limit (Optional[int]) – Number of jobs to retrieve. None means no limit.
  • skip (int) – Starting index for the job retrieval.
  • backend_name (Optional[str]) – Name of the backend to retrieve jobs from.
  • pending (Optional[bool]) – Filter by job pending state. If True, ‘QUEUED’ and ‘RUNNING’ jobs are included. If False, ‘DONE’, ‘CANCELLED’ and ‘ERROR’ jobs are included.
  • program_id (Optional[str]) – Filter by Program ID.
  • instance (Optional[str]) – This is only supported for ibm_quantum runtime and is in the hub/group/project format.
  • job_tags (Optional[List[str]]) – Filter by tags assigned to jobs. Matched jobs are associated with all tags.
  • session_id (Optional[str]) – Job ID of the first job in a runtime session.
  • created_after (Optional[datetime]) – Filter by the given start date, in local time. This is used to find jobs whose creation dates are after (greater than or equal to) this local date/time.
  • created_before (Optional[datetime]) – Filter by the given end date, in local time. This is used to find jobs whose creation dates are before (less than or equal to) this local date/time.
  • descending (bool) – If True, return the jobs in descending order of the job creation date (i.e. newest first) until the limit is reached.

Return type

List[RuntimeJob]

Returns

A list of runtime jobs.

Raises

IBMInputValueError – If an input value is invalid.

least_busy

least_busy(min_num_qubits=None, instance=None, filters=None, **kwargs)

Return the least busy available backend.

Parameters

  • min_num_qubits (Optional[int]) – Minimum number of qubits the backend has to have.

  • instance (Optional[str]) – This is only supported for ibm_quantum runtime and is in the hub/group/project format.

  • filters (Optional[Callable[[List[IBMBackend]], bool]]) –

    Filters can be defined as for the backends() method. An example to get the operational backends with 5 qubits:

    QiskitRuntimeService.least_busy(n_qubits=5, operational=True)

Return type

IBMBackend

Returns

The backend with the fewest number of pending jobs.

Raises

QiskitBackendNotFoundError – If no backend matches the criteria.

run

run(program_id, inputs, options=None, callback=None, result_decoder=None, session_id=None, start_session=False)

Execute the runtime program.

Parameters

  • program_id (str) – Program ID.

  • inputs (Dict) – Program input parameters. These input values are passed to the runtime program.

  • options (Union[RuntimeOptions, Dict, None]) – Runtime options that control the execution environment. See RuntimeOptions for all available options.

  • callback (Optional[Callable]) –

    Callback function to be invoked for any interim results and final result. The callback function will receive 2 positional parameters:

    1. Job ID
    2. Job result.
  • result_decoder (Union[Type[ResultDecoder], Sequence[Type[ResultDecoder]], None]) – A ResultDecoder subclass used to decode job results. If more than one decoder is specified, the first is used for interim results and the second final results. If not specified, a program-specific decoder or the default ResultDecoder is used.

  • session_id (Optional[str]) – Job ID of the first job in a runtime session.

  • start_session (Optional[bool]) – Set to True to explicitly start a runtime session. Defaults to False.

Return type

RuntimeJob

Returns

A RuntimeJob instance representing the execution.

Raises

  • IBMInputValueError – If input is invalid.
  • RuntimeProgramNotFound – If the program cannot be found.
  • IBMRuntimeError – An error occurred running the program.

save_account

static save_account(token=None, url=None, instance=None, channel=None, filename=None, name=None, proxies=None, verify=None, overwrite=False, channel_strategy=None, set_as_default=None)

Save the account to disk for future use.

Parameters

  • token (Optional[str]) – IBM Cloud API key or IBM Quantum API token.
  • url (Optional[str]) – The API URL. Defaults to https://cloud.ibm.com(opens in a new tab) (ibm_cloud) or https://auth.quantum-computing.ibm.com/api(opens in a new tab) (ibm_quantum).
  • instance (Optional[str]) – The CRN (ibm_cloud) or hub/group/project (ibm_quantum).
  • channel (Optional[Literal[‘ibm_cloud’, ‘ibm_quantum’]]) – Channel type. ibm_cloud or ibm_quantum.
  • filename (Optional[str]) – Full path of the file where the account is saved.
  • name (Optional[str]) – Name of the account to save.
  • proxies (Optional[dict]) – Proxy configuration. Supported optional keys are urls (a dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy, documented at https://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/api/#requests.Session.proxies(opens in a new tab)), username_ntlm, password_ntlm (username and password to enable NTLM user authentication)
  • verify (Optional[bool]) – Verify the server’s TLS certificate.
  • overwrite (Optional[bool]) – True if the existing account is to be overwritten.
  • channel_strategy (Optional[str]) – Error mitigation strategy.
  • set_as_default (Optional[bool]) – If True, the account is saved in filename, as the default account.

Return type

None

saved_accounts

static saved_accounts(default=None, channel=None, filename=None, name=None)

List the accounts saved on disk.

Parameters

  • default (Optional[bool]) – If set to True, only default accounts are returned.
  • channel (Optional[Literal[‘ibm_cloud’, ‘ibm_quantum’]]) – Channel type. ibm_cloud or ibm_quantum.
  • filename (Optional[str]) – Name of file whose accounts are returned.
  • name (Optional[str]) – If set, only accounts with the given name are returned.

Return type

dict

Returns

A dictionary with information about the accounts saved on disk.

Raises

ValueError – If an invalid account is found on disk.

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