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PauliSumOp

qiskit.opflow.primitive_ops.PauliSumOp(*args, **kwargs)

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Bases: PrimitiveOp

Deprecated: Class for Operators backed by Terra’s SparsePauliOp class.

Deprecated since version 0.24.0

The class qiskit.opflow.primitive_ops.pauli_sum_op.PauliSumOp is deprecated as of qiskit-terra 0.24.0. It will be removed in the Qiskit 1.0 release. For code migration guidelines, visit https://qisk.it/opflow_migration(opens in a new tab).

Parameters

  • primitive – The SparsePauliOp which defines the behavior of the underlying function.
  • coeff – A coefficient multiplying the primitive.
  • grouping_type – The type of grouping. If None, the operator is not grouped.

Raises

TypeError(opens in a new tab) – invalid parameters.


Attributes

INDENTATION

= '  '

coeff

The scalar coefficient multiplying the Operator.

Returns

The coefficient.

coeffs

Return the Pauli coefficients.

grouping_type

Type of Grouping

Type

Returns

instance_id

Return the unique instance id.

num_qubits

parameters

primitive

SparsePauliOp

The primitive defining the underlying function of the Operator.

Returns

The primitive object.

settings

Return operator settings.


Methods

add

add(other)

Return Operator addition of self and other, overloaded by +.

Parameters

other (OperatorBase) – An OperatorBase with the same number of qubits as self, and in the same ‘Operator’, ‘State function’, or ‘Measurement’ category as self (i.e. the same type of underlying function).

Returns

An OperatorBase equivalent to the sum of self and other.

Return type

OperatorBase

adjoint

adjoint()

Return a new Operator equal to the Operator’s adjoint (conjugate transpose), overloaded by ~. For StateFns, this also turns the StateFn into a measurement.

Returns

An OperatorBase equivalent to the adjoint of self.

Return type

PauliSumOp

compose

compose(other, permutation=None, front=False)

Return Operator Composition between self and other (linear algebra-style: A@B(x) = A(B(x))), overloaded by @.

Note: You must be conscious of Quantum Circuit vs. Linear Algebra ordering conventions. Meaning, X.compose(Y) produces an X∘Y on qubit 0, but would produce a QuantumCircuit which looks like

-[Y]-[X]-

Because Terra prints circuits with the initial state at the left side of the circuit.

Parameters

Returns

An OperatorBase equivalent to the function composition of self and other.

Return type

OperatorBase

equals

equals(other)

Evaluate Equality between Operators, overloaded by ==. Only returns True if self and other are of the same representation (e.g. a DictStateFn and CircuitStateFn will never be equal, even if their vector representations are equal), their underlying primitives are equal (this means for ListOps, OperatorStateFns, or EvolvedOps the equality is evaluated recursively downwards), and their coefficients are equal.

Parameters

other (OperatorBase) – The OperatorBase to compare to self.

Returns

A bool equal to the equality of self and other.

Return type

bool(opens in a new tab)

eval

eval(front=None)

Evaluate the Operator’s underlying function, either on a binary string or another Operator. A square binary Operator can be defined as a function taking a binary function to another binary function. This method returns the value of that function for a given StateFn or binary string. For example, op.eval('0110').eval('1110') can be seen as querying the Operator’s matrix representation by row 6 and column 14, and will return the complex value at those “indices.” Similarly for a StateFn, op.eval('1011') will return the complex value at row 11 of the vector representation of the StateFn, as all StateFns are defined to be evaluated from Zero implicitly (i.e. it is as if .eval('0000') is already called implicitly to always “indexing” from column 0).

If front is None, the matrix-representation of the operator is returned.

Parameters

front (str(opens in a new tab) |Dict(opens in a new tab)[str(opens in a new tab), complex(opens in a new tab)] | ndarray(opens in a new tab) |OperatorBase |Statevector | None) – The bitstring, dict of bitstrings (with values being coefficients), or StateFn to evaluated by the Operator’s underlying function, or None.

Returns

The output of the Operator’s evaluation function. If self is a StateFn, the result is a float or complex. If self is an Operator (PrimitiveOp, ComposedOp, SummedOp, EvolvedOp, etc.), the result is a StateFn. If front is None, the matrix-representation of the operator is returned, which is a MatrixOp for the operators and a VectorStateFn for state-functions. If either self or front contain proper ListOps (not ListOp subclasses), the result is an n-dimensional list of complex or StateFn results, resulting from the recursive evaluation by each OperatorBase in the ListOps.

Return type

OperatorBase | complex(opens in a new tab)

exp_i

exp_i()

Return a CircuitOp equivalent to e^-iH for this operator H.

Return type

OperatorBase

from_list

classmethod from_list(pauli_list, coeff=1.0, dtype=<class 'complex'>)

Construct from a pauli_list with the form [(pauli_str, coeffs)]

Parameters

Returns

The PauliSumOp constructed from the pauli_list.

Return type

PauliSumOp

is_hermitian

is_hermitian()

Return True if the operator is hermitian.

Returns: Boolean value

is_zero

is_zero()

Return this operator is zero operator or not.

Return type

bool(opens in a new tab)

matrix_iter

matrix_iter(sparse=False)

Return a matrix representation iterator.

This is a lazy iterator that converts each term in the PauliSumOp into a matrix as it is used. To convert to a single matrix use the to_matrix() method.

Parameters

sparse (bool(opens in a new tab)) – optionally return sparse CSR matrices if True, otherwise return Numpy array matrices (Default: False)

Returns

matrix iterator object for the PauliSumOp.

Return type

MatrixIterator

mul

mul(scalar)

Returns the scalar multiplication of the Operator, overloaded by *, including support for Terra’s Parameters, which can be bound to values later (via bind_parameters).

Parameters

scalar (complex(opens in a new tab) |ParameterExpression) – The real or complex scalar by which to multiply the Operator, or the ParameterExpression to serve as a placeholder for a scalar factor.

Returns

An OperatorBase equivalent to product of self and scalar.

Return type

OperatorBase

permute

permute(permutation)

Permutes the sequence of PauliSumOp.

Parameters

permutation (List(opens in a new tab)[int(opens in a new tab)]) – A list defining where each Pauli should be permuted. The Pauli at index j of the primitive should be permuted to position permutation[j].

Returns

A new PauliSumOp representing the permuted operator. For operator (X ^ Y ^ Z) and indices=[1,2,4], it returns (X ^ I ^ Y ^ Z ^ I).

Raises

OpflowError – if indices do not define a new index for each qubit.

Return type

PauliSumOp

primitive_strings

primitive_strings()

Return a set of strings describing the primitives contained in the Operator. For example, {'QuantumCircuit', 'Pauli'}. For hierarchical Operators, such as ListOps, this can help illuminate the primitives represented in the various recursive levels, and therefore which conversions can be applied.

Returns

A set of strings describing the primitives contained within the Operator.

Return type

Set(opens in a new tab)[str(opens in a new tab)]

reduce

reduce(atol=None, rtol=None)

Simplify the primitive SparsePauliOp.

Parameters

Returns

The simplified PauliSumOp.

Return type

PauliSumOp

tensor

tensor(other)

Return tensor product between self and other, overloaded by ^. Note: You must be conscious of Qiskit’s big-endian bit printing convention. Meaning, X.tensor(Y) produces an X on qubit 0 and an Y on qubit 1, or X⨂Y, but would produce a QuantumCircuit which looks like

-[Y]- -[X]-

Because Terra prints circuits and results with qubit 0 at the end of the string or circuit.

Parameters

other (OperatorBase) – The OperatorBase to tensor product with self.

Returns

An OperatorBase equivalent to the tensor product of self and other.

Return type

PauliSumOp | TensoredOp

to_instruction

to_instruction()

Returns an Instruction equivalent to this Operator.

Return type

Instruction

to_matrix

to_matrix(massive=False)

Return NumPy representation of the Operator. Represents the evaluation of the Operator’s underlying function on every combination of basis binary strings. Warn if more than 16 qubits to force having to set massive=True if such a large vector is desired.

Returns

The NumPy ndarray equivalent to this Operator.

Return type

ndarray(opens in a new tab)

to_pauli_op

to_pauli_op(massive=False)

Returns a sum of PauliOp s equivalent to this Operator.

Return type

PauliOp | SummedOp

to_spmatrix

to_spmatrix()

Returns SciPy sparse matrix representation of the PauliSumOp.

Returns

CSR sparse matrix representation of the PauliSumOp.

Raises

ValueError(opens in a new tab) – invalid parameters.

Return type

spmatrix

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