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class qiskit.transpiler.passes.Commuting2qGateRouter(*args, **kwargs)

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Bases: TransformationPass

A class to swap route one or more commuting gates to the coupling map.

This pass routes blocks of commuting two-qubit gates encapsulated as Commuting2qBlock instructions. This pass will not apply to other instructions. The mapping to the coupling map is done using swap strategies, see SwapStrategy. The swap strategy should suit the problem and the coupling map. This transpiler pass should ideally be executed before the quantum circuit is enlarged with any idle ancilla qubits. Otherwise, we may swap qubits outside the portion of the chip we want to use. Therefore, the swap strategy and its associated coupling map do not represent physical qubits. Instead, they represent an intermediate mapping that corresponds to the physical qubits once the initial layout is applied. The example below shows how to map a four qubit PauliEvolutionGate to qubits 0, 1, 3, and 4 of the five qubit device with the coupling map

0 -- 1 -- 2

To do this we use a line swap strategy for qubits 0, 1, 3, and 4 defined it in terms of virtual qubits 0, 1, 2, and 3.

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.opflow import PauliSumOp
from qiskit.circuit.library import PauliEvolutionGate
from qiskit.transpiler import Layout, CouplingMap, PassManager
from qiskit.transpiler.passes import FullAncillaAllocation
from qiskit.transpiler.passes import EnlargeWithAncilla
from qiskit.transpiler.passes import ApplyLayout
from qiskit.transpiler.passes import SetLayout
from qiskit.transpiler.passes.routing.commuting_2q_gate_routing import (
# Define the circuit on virtual qubits
op = PauliSumOp.from_list([("IZZI", 1), ("ZIIZ", 2), ("ZIZI", 3)])
circ = QuantumCircuit(4)
circ.append(PauliEvolutionGate(op, 1), range(4))
# Define the swap strategy on qubits before the initial_layout is applied.
swap_strat = SwapStrategy.from_line([0, 1, 2, 3])
# Chose qubits 0, 1, 3, and 4 from the backend coupling map shown above.
backend_cmap = CouplingMap(couplinglist=[(0, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (3, 4)])
initial_layout = Layout.from_intlist([0, 1, 3, 4], *circ.qregs)
pm_pre = PassManager(
# Insert swap gates, map to initial_layout and finally enlarge with ancilla."mpl")

This pass manager relies on the current_layout which corresponds to the qubit layout as swap gates are applied. The pass will traverse all nodes in the dag. If a node should be routed using a swap strategy then it will be decomposed into sub-instructions with swap layers in between and the current_layout will be modified. Nodes that should not be routed using swap strategies will be added back to the dag taking the current_layout into account.


  • swap_strategy – An instance of a SwapStrategy that holds the swap layers that are used, and the order in which to apply them, to map the instruction to the hardware. If this field is not given, it should be contained in the property set of the pass. This allows other passes to determine the most appropriate swap strategy at run-time.
  • edge_coloring – An optional edge coloring of the coupling map (I.e. no two edges that share a node have the same color). If the edge coloring is given then the commuting gates that can be simultaneously applied given the current qubit permutation are grouped according to the edge coloring and applied according to this edge coloring. Here, a color is an int which is used as the index to define and access the groups of commuting gates that can be applied simultaneously. If the edge coloring is not given then the sets will be built-up using a greedy algorithm. The edge coloring is useful to position gates such as RZZGates next to swap gates to exploit CX cancellations.



Check if the pass is an analysis pass.

If the pass is an AnalysisPass, that means that the pass can analyze the DAG and write the results of that analysis in the property set. Modifications on the DAG are not allowed by this kind of pass.


Check if the pass is a transformation pass.

If the pass is a TransformationPass, that means that the pass can manipulate the DAG, but cannot modify the property set (but it can be read).



execute(passmanager_ir, state, callback=None)

Execute optimization task for input Qiskit IR.



Optimized Qiskit IR and state of the workflow.

Return type

tuple(opens in a new tab)[Any(opens in a new tab), qiskit.passmanager.compilation_status.PassManagerState]



Name of the pass.

Return type

str(opens in a new tab)



Run the pass by decomposing the nodes it applies on.


dag (DAGCircuit) – The dag to which we will add swaps.


A dag where swaps have been added for the intended gate type.


  • TranspilerError – If the swap strategy was not given at init time and there is no swap strategy in the property set.
  • TranspilerError – If the quantum circuit contains more than one qubit register.
  • TranspilerError – If there are qubits that are not contained in the quantum register.

Return type



swap_decompose(dag, node, current_layout, swap_strategy)

Take an instance of Commuting2qBlock and map it to the coupling map.

The mapping is done with the swap strategy.


  • dag (DAGCircuit) – The dag which contains the Commuting2qBlock we route.
  • node (DAGOpNode) – A node whose operation is a Commuting2qBlock.
  • current_layout (Layout) – The layout before the swaps are applied. This function will modify the layout so that subsequent gates can be properly composed on the dag.
  • swap_strategy (SwapStrategy) – The swap strategy used to decompose the node.


A dag that is compatible with the coupling map where swap gates have been added to map the gates in the Commuting2qBlock to the hardware.

Return type



update_status(state, run_state)

Update workflow status.


  • state (PassManagerState) – Pass manager state to update.
  • run_state (RunState) – Completion status of current task.


Updated pass manager state.

Return type


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