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Operator

qiskit.quantum_info.Operator(data, input_dims=None, output_dims=None)

GitHub(opens in a new tab)

Bases: LinearOp

Matrix operator class

This represents a matrix operator MM that will evolve() a Statevector ψ|\psi\rangle by matrix-vector multiplication

ψMψ,|\psi\rangle \mapsto M|\psi\rangle,

and will evolve() a DensityMatrix ρ\rho by left and right multiplication

ρMρM.\rho \mapsto M \rho M^\dagger.

Initialize an operator object.

Parameters

Raises

QiskitError – if input data cannot be initialized as an operator.

Additional Information:

If the input or output dimensions are None, they will be automatically determined from the input data. If the input data is a Numpy array of shape (2**N, 2**N) qubit systems will be used. If the input operator is not an N-qubit operator, it will assign a single subsystem with dimension specified by the shape of the input.


Attributes

atol

= 1e-08

data

The underlying Numpy array.

dim

Return tuple (input_shape, output_shape).

num_qubits

Return the number of qubits if a N-qubit operator or None otherwise.

qargs

Return the qargs for the operator.

rtol

= 1e-05

settings

Return operator settings.


Methods

adjoint

adjoint()

Return the adjoint of the Operator.

Return type

Self

apply_permutation

apply_permutation(perm, front=False)

Modifies operator’s data by composing it with a permutation.

Parameters

  • perm (list(opens in a new tab)) – permutation pattern, describing which qubits occupy the positions 0, 1, 2, etc. after applying the permutation.
  • front (bool(opens in a new tab)) – When set to True the permutation is applied before the operator, when set to False the permutation is applied after the operator.

Returns

The modified operator.

Return type

Operator

Raises

QiskitError – if the size of the permutation pattern does not match the dimensions of the operator.

compose

compose(other, qargs=None, front=False)

Return the operator composition with another Operator.

Parameters

  • other (Operator) – a Operator object.
  • qargs (list(opens in a new tab) or None) – Optional, a list of subsystem positions to apply other on. If None apply on all subsystems (default: None).
  • front (bool(opens in a new tab)) – If True compose using right operator multiplication, instead of left multiplication [default: False].

Returns

The composed Operator.

Return type

Operator

Raises

QiskitError – if other cannot be converted to an operator, or has incompatible dimensions for specified subsystems.

Note

Composition (&) by default is defined as left matrix multiplication for matrix operators, while @ (equivalent to dot()) is defined as right matrix multiplication. That is that A & B == A.compose(B) is equivalent to B @ A == B.dot(A) when A and B are of the same type.

Setting the front=True kwarg changes this to right matrix multiplication and is equivalent to the dot() method A.dot(B) == A.compose(B, front=True).

conjugate

conjugate()

Return the conjugate of the Operator.

copy

copy()

Make a deep copy of current operator.

dot

dot(other, qargs=None)

Return the right multiplied operator self * other.

Parameters

  • other (Operator) – an operator object.
  • qargs (list(opens in a new tab) or None) – Optional, a list of subsystem positions to apply other on. If None apply on all subsystems (default: None).

Returns

The right matrix multiplied Operator.

Return type

Operator

Note

The dot product can be obtained using the @ binary operator. Hence a.dot(b) is equivalent to a @ b.

draw

draw(output=None, **drawer_args)

Return a visualization of the Operator.

repr: String of the state’s __repr__.

text: ASCII TextMatrix that can be printed in the console.

latex: An IPython Latex object for displaying in Jupyter Notebooks.

latex_source: Raw, uncompiled ASCII source to generate array using LaTeX.

Parameters

  • output (str(opens in a new tab)) – Select the output method to use for drawing the state. Valid choices are repr, text, latex, latex_source, Default is repr.
  • drawer_args – Arguments to be passed directly to the relevant drawing function or constructor (TextMatrix(), array_to_latex()). See the relevant function under qiskit.visualization for that function’s documentation.

Returns

Drawing of the Operator.

Return type

str(opens in a new tab) or TextMatrix or IPython.display.Latex

Raises

ValueError(opens in a new tab) – when an invalid output method is selected.

equiv

equiv(other, rtol=None, atol=None)

Return True if operators are equivalent up to global phase.

Parameters

Returns

True if operators are equivalent up to global phase.

Return type

bool(opens in a new tab)

expand

expand(other)

Return the reverse-order tensor product with another Operator.

Parameters

other (Operator) – a Operator object.

Returns

the tensor product bab \otimes a, where aa

is the current Operator, and bb is the other Operator.

Return type

Operator

from_circuit

classmethod from_circuit(circuit, ignore_set_layout=False, layout=None, final_layout=None)

Create a new Operator object from a QuantumCircuit

While a QuantumCircuit object can passed directly as data to the class constructor this provides no options on how the circuit is used to create an Operator. This constructor method lets you control how the Operator is created so it can be adjusted for a particular use case.

By default this constructor method will permute the qubits based on a configured initial layout (i.e. after it was transpiled). It also provides an option to manually provide a Layout object directly.

Parameters

  • circuit (QuantumCircuit) – The QuantumCircuit to create an Operator object from.
  • ignore_set_layout (bool(opens in a new tab)) – When set to True if the input circuit has a layout set it will be ignored
  • layout (Layout) – If specified this kwarg can be used to specify a particular layout to use to permute the qubits in the created Operator. If this is specified it will be used instead of a layout contained in the circuit input. If specified the virtual bits in the Layout must be present in the circuit input.
  • final_layout (Layout) – If specified this kwarg can be used to represent the output permutation caused by swap insertions during the routing stage of the transpiler.

Returns

An operator representing the input circuit

Return type

Operator

from_label

classmethod from_label(label)

Return a tensor product of single-qubit operators.

Parameters

label (string) – single-qubit operator string.

Returns

The N-qubit operator.

Return type

Operator

Raises

QiskitError – if the label contains invalid characters, or the length of the label is larger than an explicitly specified num_qubits.

Additional Information:

The labels correspond to the single-qubit matrices: ‘I’: [[1, 0], [0, 1]] ‘X’: [[0, 1], [1, 0]] ‘Y’: [[0, -1j], [1j, 0]] ‘Z’: [[1, 0], [0, -1]] ‘H’: [[1, 1], [1, -1]] / sqrt(2) ‘S’: [[1, 0], [0 , 1j]] ‘T’: [[1, 0], [0, (1+1j) / sqrt(2)]] ‘0’: [[1, 0], [0, 0]] ‘1’: [[0, 0], [0, 1]] ‘+’: [[0.5, 0.5], [0.5 , 0.5]] ‘-’: [[0.5, -0.5], [-0.5 , 0.5]] ‘r’: [[0.5, -0.5j], [0.5j , 0.5]] ‘l’: [[0.5, 0.5j], [-0.5j , 0.5]]

input_dims

input_dims(qargs=None)

Return tuple of input dimension for specified subsystems.

is_unitary

is_unitary(atol=None, rtol=None)

Return True if operator is a unitary matrix.

output_dims

output_dims(qargs=None)

Return tuple of output dimension for specified subsystems.

power

power(n)

Return the matrix power of the operator.

Parameters

n (float(opens in a new tab)) – the power to raise the matrix to.

Returns

the resulting operator O ** n.

Return type

Operator

Raises

QiskitError – if the input and output dimensions of the operator are not equal.

reshape

reshape(input_dims=None, output_dims=None, num_qubits=None)

Return a shallow copy with reshaped input and output subsystem dimensions.

Parameters

  • input_dims (None or tuple(opens in a new tab)) – new subsystem input dimensions. If None the original input dims will be preserved [Default: None].
  • output_dims (None or tuple(opens in a new tab)) – new subsystem output dimensions. If None the original output dims will be preserved [Default: None].
  • num_qubits (None or int(opens in a new tab)) – reshape to an N-qubit operator [Default: None].

Returns

returns self with reshaped input and output dimensions.

Return type

BaseOperator

Raises

QiskitError – if combined size of all subsystem input dimension or subsystem output dimensions is not constant.

reverse_qargs

reverse_qargs()

Return an Operator with reversed subsystem ordering.

For a tensor product operator this is equivalent to reversing the order of tensor product subsystems. For an operator A=An1...A0A = A_{n-1} \otimes ... \otimes A_0 the returned operator will be A0...An1A_0 \otimes ... \otimes A_{n-1}.

Returns

the operator with reversed subsystem order.

Return type

Operator

tensor

tensor(other)

Return the tensor product with another Operator.

Parameters

other (Operator) – a Operator object.

Returns

the tensor product aba \otimes b, where aa

is the current Operator, and bb is the other Operator.

Return type

Operator

Note

The tensor product can be obtained using the ^ binary operator. Hence a.tensor(b) is equivalent to a ^ b.

to_instruction

to_instruction()

Convert to a UnitaryGate instruction.

to_matrix

to_matrix()

Convert operator to NumPy matrix.

to_operator

to_operator()

Convert operator to matrix operator class

Return type

Operator

transpose

transpose()

Return the transpose of the Operator.

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