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random_clifford(num_qubits, seed=None)

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Return a random Clifford operator.

The Clifford is sampled using the method of Reference [1].


  • num_qubits (int) – the number of qubits for the Clifford
  • seed (int or np.random.Generator) – Optional. Set a fixed seed or generator for RNG.


a random Clifford operator.

Return type



  1. S. Bravyi and D. Maslov, Hadamard-free circuits expose the structure of the Clifford group. arXiv:2003.09412 [quant-ph](opens in a new tab)
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